A LITTLE HISTORY
of us are old enough to remember the days of the “smoke eaters”,
firefighters who would go into smoke-filled environments without
an S.C.B.A. There was a time when they were admired for being “tough”,
but today, we realize that it’s just foolish to not take advantage
of modern safety equipment – not to mention the legal and
health ramifications. Today’s S.C.B.A.s are lightweight, offer
an excellent field of vision, have integrated PASS devices, and
some even provide air management information in heads-up displays.
The improvements in this area have been extraordinary, and have
greatly improved firefighter safety and survivability.
Similarly, there was a time when a firefighter would brag about
how much heat he or she was able to withstand, which would even
escalate into fire ground competitions over how deep into the fire
they were able to get. Today’s turn-out gear makes use of
high-tech materials such as carbon hoods and gloves, offering firefighters
protection even in extreme environments, allowing deeper access
without the macho risk-taking. Don’t get me wrong: there’s
a time and place for competition. It’s just not on the fire
ground, where taking an unnecessary chance can literally cost a
good firefighter their life.
Of course, changes in equipment often require changes in operations.
For example, new turnout gear does such an excellent job of isolating
firefighters from heat, we actually lose some of the ‘cues’
we used to rely on (like that tingle in your ears) to warn us of
dangerous situations. To balance this loss, the fire service continues
to introduce new and innovative techniques (positive pressure ventilation,
better coordination between vent and attack) and equipment (positive
pressure fans, vent saws such as the K-12, and chain saws with carbide
chains) that allow us to remove smoke and heat much more effectively.
This not only addresses the immediate dangers, but also reduces
the chance of flashover, back draft, steam burns, and similar critical
Of course, nothing creates an adrenaline rush like the rescue call:
occupants of a structure are trapped and need extraction. This is
the core of firefighting: saving lives. Heroic as it may have been,
gone are the days when a firefighter rushes in single handedly through
the flames: today’s responders follow the two-in/two-out rule,
stay on the hose line, stay on the wall, and always maintaining
team contact. These are the fundamental rules that offer first responders
the greatest opportunity to execute a successful rescue, and they
train extensively under low-to-zero visibility, high heat/steam/smoke,
and crowded, multi-level environments to mimic real-life scenarios.
And again, modern equipment has helped make rescues even more safe
and effective: thermal imaging cameras (TICs), beacons and self-rescue
tools, just to name a few.
On-scene personnel accountability is another area that has seen
some progress, although it’s been more limited than other
areas. For decades now, most fire departments have been using variations
of the ID tag system, typically multi-part devices that are manually
passed from responder to officer, and moved around on a tag board
to track locations and assignments. Clearly, this is a step forward
from note pads and memory, but it has been at best a limited success.
Chiefs and Safety Officers routinely complain about the amount of
attention a tag system requires to keep it accurate. Many openly
admit that their on-scene personnel accountability is inadequate
under even routine conditions, and that they’re “lucky”
that nothing catastrophic has happened. Others haven’t been
so lucky, and have experienced firsthand the difficulty of trying
to recreate personnel movement and assignments during the investigation
of an injury or death, and having to determine whether better accountability
could have averted or lessened the severity of the event.
Just as the fire service has grown from idolizing the smoke eaters
and heat seekers to adopting tools and technologies to improve operations
and safety for all responders, the time has come for Fire Officers
to understand that personnel accountability – knowing who
and what is on scene, and where they are right now – has a
direct impact on the safety of every firefighter, and to recognize
that memory, tag boards and hand-written notes are no substitute
for properly applied technology.
As noted above, most departments today use some variation on ID
tag-based accountability. Unfortunately, these systems tend to be
resource-heavy, requiring close attention and dedicated personnel
to collect, return, and arrange tags as firefighters move around
and change assignments. While some departments have the resources
available to dedicate to managing tags, most do not. Early in the
incident is especially difficult, since all personnel are needed
for operational tasks and no one is left to collect and manage tags.
Tags that are turned in generally wind up in a pile somewhere, and
without someone to remind them, some firefighters simply forget
– a firefighter walking around with their tag still hanging
off of their helmet is a common sight. Although “better than
nothing,” an unattended pile of tags can only confirm who
is on scene, with no detail about location or assignment. After
sufficient personnel have arrived on scene and a firefighter is
finally assigned accountability, they often find it’s all
but impossible to get the system organized and accurate.
addition, tag systems typically require that responders report changes
in assignment and location via radio, so that the accountability
officer can update the tag board as appropriate. In addition to
the traditional “forgot to call in” issues, this encounters
problem: radio breakdowns due to heavy traffic and dead spots. When
communication fails, the accountability board isn’t updated
and quickly becomes inaccurate; in the best case, outdated information
is just useless, but at the worst, it’s outright dangerous.
Aside from simply knowing where your firefighters are, it’s
critical to know their timeline: extended periods in the hot zone
and/or time without rehabilitation can a be direct, even fatal,
hazard (approximately 50% of all firefighter fatalities are from
heart attack attributable to overexertion,
ISN’T THERE A BETTER WAY?
It’s hard to overstate the importance of accurate, effective,
and real-time personnel accountability, yet responders widely admit
the limitations and failures of current systems. So why haven’t
firefighters and Chief Officers demanded a better solution? Well,
there are a variety of reasons:
. Research clearly shows that in a majority of after-injury
reports, lack of effective accountability is at least a contributing
factor, and Chiefs tell us that when such an event occurs, personnel
accountability almost always jumps into the spotlight. Questions
come up about operating procedures (and why they weren’t followed),
and demands made that “something be done”. However,
memories are short and thankfully, serious incidents are rare; as
time passes and no other incidents occur, the importance of good
personnel accountability seems to fade... until the next incident.
Force of Habit. Inertia plays a big role: Chiefs
will continue to use a system, even knowing it is ineffective, simply
out of a desire to stay in their comfort zone. Uprooting and replacing
an established way of doing things is disruptive and difficult,
and the longer the current system has been in place, the more difficult
that change becomes. Therefore, departments tend to justify current
methods and blame S.O.P. failures rather than considering brand-new
solutions, even in view of obvious advantages.
Fewer Fire Runs.
Today’s Fire Inspectors are armed
with aggressive fire codes, backed with new tools and educational
opportunities that result in better fire preparedness and prevention.
As a result, many departments are experiencing a decrease in the
number of fires calls: obviously excellent for the community, but
as a side effect, it reduces the amount of direct firefighting experience
that responders gain over time. Increased and improved training
helps mitigate that lost experience, but as the old adage goes,
“you lose what you don’t use.” This applies just
as much to fire ground activities such as accountability management
as it does to specific firefighting and rescue skills and techniques.
Nothing has Happened (Yet). Sadly, the fact that
no firefighters have (recently) been injured or killed at a given
department can become an excuse to accept inertia, avoiding the
work and expense of changing to new, better methods and equipment.
They become OK with tracking some of the firefighters some of the
time and “playing the odds” since it’s easy and
hasn’t been a problem. A quick search of “personnel
clearly demonstrates why this attitude is so dangerous: just
like a smoke detector in your home, you may never need it, but it
suddenly becomes invaluable when you do. It’s also worth a
visit to http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/
to review some investigative reports, which routinely cite the lack
of an effective personnel accountability system as a contributing
factor in many in-action fatalities. As you might imagine, “this
never happened before” is a pretty weak position to take when
facing an investigator.